BERNSTEIN, EDUARD


BERNSTEIN, EDUARD
BERNSTEIN, EDUARD (1850–1932), German socialist theoretician, spokesman for the socalled revisionist group which challenged orthodox Marxist doctrines. Born in Berlin, Bernstein was the son of a Jewish engine driver. He joined the Social Democratic Party in 1872 and participated in the creation of the important Gotha program (1875). In 1878, Bernstein was forced to leave Germany after the enactment of the anti-socialist legislation. He lived first in Switzerland, where he edited the Sozialdemokrat, and then in London. It was while he was in London that he published his principal work Die Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der Sozialdemokratie (1899; Evolutionary Socialism, 1909), in which he set out his nonconformist Marxist interpretation of history. Bernstein contested the view of the inevitable collapse of capitalism and urged the socialists to become a party of reform. His views were vehemently opposed as heretical by most of the party but gained numerous adherents, the socalled "revisionists." In 1901 Bernstein returned to Germany and sat in the Reichstag from 1902 to 1906 and from 1912 to 1918. In World War I his pacifist views led him to disassociate himself from the right-wing faction and join the left-wing independent socialists who opposed the war. He returned to the majority party in 1918 and sat in the Reichstag again as a Social Democrat from 1920 to 1928. Concerning Judaism, Bernstein grew up in a Reform-oriented environment; aaron david bernstein was his father's brother. Thus, Eduard Bernstein was aware of Jewish traditions and ideas, but not interested in them. Nevertheless, throughout his tenure as a deputy in the Reichstag, he was an active fighter for Jewish emancipation and against antisemitism. In common with many Jewish socialists of the time, Bernstein left the Jewish community because the party disapproved of all religious affiliations. During World War I, however, he began to rethink his conception of being Jewish in the modern world. In his book Die Aufgaben der Juden im Weltkriege (1917) he argued that because of their dispersion and universalist ideas, the Jews should be the pioneers of an internationalism which would unite nations and prevent war. Towards the end of World War I, he got in touch with the Po'alei Zion movement, and established close contacts with Zalman Rubashov (later shazar , third president of Israel). During the Weimar Republik, Bernstein became an active supporter of East European Jews. Because of their specific situation he accepted a distinct Jewish nationalism among them, while he disapproved of the same for Western and Central European Jews. Toward the end of his life, he came to support the concept of a Jewish national home in Palestine and became a leader of the "International Socialist Pro-Palestine Committee." Bernstein's writings include his autobiography Erinnerungen eines Sozialisten (1918; My Years of Exile, 1921), Ferdinand Lassalle (1919); Die Deutsche Revolution (1921), and Sozialismus und Demokratie in der grossen Englischen Revolution (1922; Cromwell and Communism, 1930). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Lichtheim, Marxism (1961), index; P. Angel, Eduard Bernstein et l'évolution du socialisme allemand (1961); P. Gay, The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism: Eduard Bernstein's Challenge to Marx (1952); E. Silberner, in: HJ, 15 (1953), 3–48. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Heuer (ed.), Lexikon deutsch-juedischer Autoren, 2 (1993), 301–38, bibl.; L. Heid, in: E. Bernstein, Texte in juedischen Angelegenheiten (2004), 13–56. (Robert Weltsch / Marcus Pyka (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Bernstein, Eduard — born Jan. 6, 1850, Berlin, Prussia died Dec. 18, 1932, Berlin, Germany German politician and writer. He joined the German Social Democratic Party in 1872, then spent years in exile as an editor of socialist journals. In London he met Friedrich… …   Universalium

  • Bernstein, Eduard — (1850–1932)    Bernstein is one of the most significant Marxists in terms of his political and theoretical contributions to Marxism, and in terms of his lasting influence. He has been both condemned and lauded as a “revisionist,” and was bold… …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Bernstein, Eduard — (1850 1932) As the leading revisionist thinker of the German Social Democratic Party, Bernstein sought to cleanse the party s ideology of what he regarded as its anachronistic Marxist assumptions and ideas. At the philosophical level and on the… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Bernstein, Eduard — ► (1850 1932) Político y escritor alemán. Jefe del Partido Socialista, sometió las doctrinas marxistas a una profunda crítica. * * * (6 ene. 1850, Berlín, Prusia–18 dic. 1932, Berlín, Alemania). Político y escritor alemán. Se unió al Partido… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bernstein, Eduard — (1850 1932)    German propagandist. Born in Berlin, he joined the Marxist wing of the labour movement in 1872. He later left Germany for Switzerland and became editor of Der Sozialdemokrat in 1881. In 1888 he was expelled from the country, and… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Bernstein, Eduard —    See Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany and Social Democratic Party of Germany …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Bernstein — Bernstein, Eduard …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Eduard Bernstein — 1895 Eduard Bernstein (* 6. Januar 1850 in Schöneberg b. Berlin; † 18. Dezember 1932 ebenda) war ein sozialdemokratischer Theoretiker und Politiker in der SPD und zeitweilig der USPD. Er gilt als Begründer des theoretischen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eduard Heinrich Rudolph David — Eduard David (1907) Eduard Heinrich Rudolph David (* 11. Juni 1863 in Ediger an der Mosel; † 24. Dezember 1930 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Politiker der Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands (SPD). David stand seit den 1890er Jahren auf de …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eduard Bernstein — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Eduard Bernstein (*Berlín, 6 de enero de 1850 18 de diciembre de 1932) fue un político alemán del SPD, considerado padre del revisionismo y uno de los principales fundadores de la socialdemocracia. Era descendiente… …   Wikipedia Español


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